What exactly is it?
The kidneys, ureters, intestine, and urethra comprise the urinary system. The kidneys are the organs that excrete waste from our bodies in the form of urine. The kidneys are located on either side of the back, behind the lower ribs. Urine is transported from the kidneys to the bladder by the ureters. Urine is contained in the urinary bladder before it is time to urinate.
They shape as some chemicals in urine crystallise and bind together. The crystals combine to form a block, which may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. Small stones (typically 5mm) will travel through the urinary system without creating any complications. Larger stones, on the other hand, can obstruct the flow of urine or irritate the lining of the urinary tract. The majority of stones (70)
Calcium oxalate crystals are present in up to 80% of the samples. A lesser number of stones are formed from uric acid or cystine.
What are the reasons?
Stones in the kidney
Normally, urine contains chemicals that inhibit the formation of crystals. Any individuals seem to be predisposed to kidney stones rather than others. Factors such as recurring urinary tract infections
Stone development is caused by infections, a lack of fluids, and a blockage of the urinary tract. Excess oxalate or uric acid in the diet, excess vitamin C or D, some antibiotics, and metabolic conditions can all contribute to the formation of kidney stones.
What are the signs and symptoms?
Kidney stones can exist for a long time without causing any symptoms. They may present with intense pain that begins in the lower back under the ribs or in the lower abdomen and moves to the groyne. The discomfort, which is often associated with vomiting, will last for minutes or hours, with intervals of relaxation in between. It’s a flank ache. Blood can surface in the urine as a result of the stones.
urination If a urinary tract infection is present, there may be burning during urination, as well as an urge to urinate.
How is the diagnosis arrived at?
To diagnose kidney disease, a thorough medical examination, X-rays, and other tests are required.
a stone The doctor will do a thorough medical examination and will inquire about previous kidney illnesses, diet, drug utilisation, and family history. Most stones are visible on a clear X-ray of the belly, like the kidneys, ureters, and bladder area (KUB view), though they are invisible to X-rays. Any less common stones can be detected with dye injections (Intravenous Pyelography) or an ultrasound examination.
To determine whether there is an underlying cause, blood tests such as calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid estimation, as well as urine tests, may be required.
Often see: What is the best way to get rid of kidney stones?
What is the course of action?
Most small stones (less than 5 mm in size) move through the body on their own.
within a few hours or a few days Drinking plenty of fluids aids in this process. Medication may be used to remove some kinds of stones. The more popular stones, however (those containing calcium), cannot be dissolved. Stones that do not dissolve on their own to induce urinary tract congestion, resulting in signs of pain/discomfort or swelling of the kidney and the associated urinary tract.
Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is a non-surgical procedure that uses high-energy shock waves to smash the stones into tiny particles like sand. This stone dust is then excreted in the urine over the next few weeks. This procedure can be used efficiently in many cases where the stones are small. The alternative approach is
by a procedure that can be performed using an endoscope (ureteroscopy, nephroscopy) or the normal open technique More and more stones can now be handled without the need for an open surgery.
Read: Do I Require Surgery to Remove a Kidney Stone?
What are the preventative measures?
Certain measures should be taken to help avoid kidney stone development. If there are no underlying health issues, drinking at least 2 litres of fluid a day, along with a low salt diet, will help avoid repeated stone formation. In the case of calcium oxalate stones, very large quantities of dairy products or oxalate-rich foods (such as tea or chocolate) should be avoided.
What are the difficulties?
Kidney stones can cause bleeding along with urine in addition to causing repeated periods of intense pain. Infections that damage the kidneys are possible. If the stones obstruct the downward flow of urine, the kidney swells up with urine (hydronephrosis), which may impair its operation over time.